Glossary (and Abbreviations)

Glossary and Abbreviations


  • API (organization): American Petroleum Institute
  • ASME (organization): American Society of Mechanical Engineers
  • AWS (organization): American Welding Society
  • FCP: Flexible Ceramic Pad. This is the heater used in electrical resistance HT.
  • GCB: Gradient Control Band. This is the widest band and covers all area under insulation.
  • HAZ: Heat Affected Zone. It refers to the parts of the base metal that is around a weld and has been affected by the heat from welding activities.
  • HB: Heated Band. This band receives most of its heat from the SB, and its size is in-between that of GCB and SB.
  • HT: Heat treatment. This is the engineering process used to prepare materials for welding, transformation, etc.
  • Hydrogen Bakeout: This HT process is used to remove harmful substances from the workpiece, such as hydrogen, moisture, etc. In other words, it removes more than just hydrogen.


  • LNG: Liquid natural gas. Examples are: methane, ethane, etc. This industry uses a lot of HT, welding, etc.
  • Lower Critical Temperature: This refers to the temperature HT must avoid reaching or exceeding because it may change a material’s attributes and molecular structure. Different materials can have different lower critical temperatures.
  • NBIC (organization): National Boiler Inspection Code
  • OD: Outer Diameter. This term is usually used to describe a pipe’s size, and it refers to a pipe’s diameter that includes the thickness of the pipe wall.
  • Post-Heating: This HT process may not be present in all HT projects and is often used to transition the HT process in-between shifts.
  • PPE: Personal protective equipment. Example are gloves, face-shield, etc.
  • Pre-Heat: This HT process begins before the welding starts and continues through the welding process.
  • PWHT: Post-Weld Heat Treatment. This HT process takes place after the welding is done.


  • SB: Soak Band. This band is the narrowest, hottest band situated at the heart of the GCB and SB.
  • T/C: Thermocouple. This is the temperature monitor and control device attached to the workpiece.
  • Welding Tacks: It refers to the small welds (also called spot welds) that hold things in place before the welding begins.
  • WRC (organization): Welding Research Council

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Organizations for Quality Codes

OrganizationCode ExamplesWebsite
(To download or buy code documents)
American Petroleum Institute
API 510
API 650
American Society of Mechanical Engineers
ASME B31.1
ASME B31.3
American Welding Society
AWS D10.22
AWS D10.10
National Boiler Inspection Code
NBIC Part 3
Welding Research Council
WRC bulletin 452

Quality means doing it right–when no one is looking.

Henry Ford

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Managing Equipment Fatigue during Critical Path

Having an equipment maintenance plan should be near the top of your execution strategy list if not at the very top for every project.

This is not a drill soldier !!

Turnarounds are intense, there are huge costs incurred for the owners, from loss of revenue when units are down to planning and scheduling in the early periods to ensuring everyone’s engaged and knows the scope and plan as it gets closer to the project start date.

Upon start the pressure begins and eventually builds to a crescendo known widely as critical path.

During this part of the TAR the finish line is in sight, the craft has been working long days and nights, all working toward the finish line and most importantly, safely, with a view to some recuperation time before the next one begins.

Having the best crews executing the work can become meaningless if the equipment fails them“

Equipment can get used to maximum capacity for long periods during turnaround (TAR) , without a plan to manage and maintain, the equipment can become fatigued and lead to heat cycle failures that have an adverse effect on the parts being heated, and also your future customer relations.

It can affect technician moral for the remainder of the project and future revenue streams at other plants.

If you are reliant on vendors for some of your equipment needs its crucial equipment meets or exceeds requirements, that they have excess capacity readily available in there supply for a quick change out should an unfortunate occurrence happen.

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Using professionals who are well versed on the vagaries of heat treatment can help streamline the plan

end users expect you to have a reliable supplier!!


It’s also important the equipment suppliers are versed on how important a part of the team they are, Using the most reliable as against the least expensive is not always advantageous to the project, engage them early, advise how crucial they are to the project success.

Quality and reliability is remembered long after price is forgotten

Have them ensure adequate staff trained with site access to do regular maintenance checks during equipment downtime. ( Assist them with this if needed )

Aggreko technician

These projects run 24/7, having maintenance technicians with their equipment is always the best course of action, especially during the critical path.

If the equipment is 100% owned the responsibility is owned 100% by the company, the upkeep and scheduled maintenance falls on the executive management, project management and supervision, if they don’t own it, get new leaders!!

Helpful Tips

  1. The equipment maintenance plan should be clear, concise, and close to the top of your execution plan.
  2. Ensure a plan that is flexible enough to manage between heat cycles.
  3. Suppliers – have technician(s) safety trained and availability onsite at critical path time for additional support.
  4. Should not need saying – BUT !! Equipment in good working order before it arrives at job site.
  5. Include a good selection of spare parts and have them readily available at the job site.
  6. Make everyone aware of spare parts location and how to access them if they are under lock and key.

Repairing damage to your companies reputation due to failures during critical path can have a long healing period. Engage everyone early and often on the expectations of the plan and give your project a better chance to succeed.

Photos of our power generation fleet